is coal a mineral

These deposits form a mineralized commodity that is of economic interest to the miner. All true, but… then there's coal. In other words, it is oxidized. Lignite has a medium brown color and is only used to power electric generators. To be a mineral something must be 1) naturally occurring 2) a single chemical compound 3) have a defined crystal structure. The court went on to state that it is a well settled law that “petroleum oil is a mineral and is part of the realty, like coal, iron and copper”, further evidencing the … Bituminous coal is black, hard and usually dull to glossy in appearance. To oversimplify a complex subject, inertinite is generally derived from plant tissues, liptinite from pollen and resins, and vitrinite from humus or broken-down plant matter. It is used as pencil "lead" and as a powder lubricant. Coal is made from decomposed plants that are organic (were living) He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. Coal is an enormously valuable fossil fuel that has been used for hundreds of years in the industry. Bituminous and sub-bituminous coals are used in steam power generators. Coal on the other hand also comes from plants (organic) and is generally considered a mineral. The deeper the coal is, the higher its quality. al (mĭn′ər-əl) n. 1. While coal has been reported in rocks as old as Proterozoic (possibly 2 billion years) and as young as Pliocene (2 million years old), the great majority of the world's coal was laid down during the Carboniferous Period, a 60-million-year stretch (359-299 m.y.a.) 1, 2, 23, 24, 26 Under reducing conditions, organically-bound sodium and potassium are released as metallic sodium and potassium. B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. If the wood was immune to rot before 300 million years ago, then perhaps anoxic conditions were not always necessary. Still more valuable is the fate of deeply buried carbon, which at conditions found in the mantle is transformed into a new crystalline form: diamond. Today, we can find plant matter being preserved in anoxic places: peat bogs like those of Ireland or wetlands like the Everglades of Florida. It looks like a rock and feels like a rock and is found in layers between other types of rocks – it sure sounds like a rock to me. The carbon in coal, however, was preserved from oxidation and remains in a chemically reduced form, available for oxidation. According to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), $109 . 29 different minerals needed to get that electricity to our homes and businesses. Coal is not a mineral because it is organic, and minerals are inorganic. Coal beds are much, much larger than peat bogs, some of the tens of meters in thickness, and they occur all over the world. billion of coal and minerals were mined in 2018, with $82 billion of non-fuel minerals processed into $766 Indian coal A was a high ash coal (46.7%) but contained very small minerals particles and was found less abrasive and erosive than the two other Indian coals that had high ash contents. It is a sedimentary rock or, in the case of butiminous coal, a metamorphic rock. 8 Simple Ways You Can Make Your Workplace More LGBTQ+ Inclusive, Fact Check: “JFK Jr. Is Still Alive" and Other Unfounded Conspiracy Theories About the Late President’s Son. In the process, the material releases hydrocarbons, which migrate away and eventually become petroleum. There are three groups of macerals: inertinite, liptinite, and vitrinite. Confusion arises because high-rank coals … 2. crystalline - arguable. But, we also know that the economics of a coal mine depends on the volume of coal recoverable at a specific depth. Many sedimentary rocks are also altered through burial-thermal processes (increasing cementation, etc.). The proportion of these and other elements in a coal vein depends on its location, age and the types of organic material that contributed to its formation. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today. Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock … The fossils in the shale and limestone change from shallow-water organisms to deep-water species, then back to shallow forms. b. With more heat and pressure lignite releases more hydrocarbons and becomes the higher-grade bituminous coal. Coal is NOT a mineral. How the COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Schools and Education in Lasting Ways. The rate of release is dependent upon total surface, pore size, pore diffusivity and bulk diffusivity. While coal is naturally occurring, it is organic and thus does not meet the ASTM's definition of "mineral". Rocks are, of course, made up of minerals. Of the four ranks, bituminous coal accounts for over half (51 percent) of the demonstrated And sure enough, in the region that was at the south pole during that time, the rock record shows abundant evidence of glaciers. And sure enough, fossil leaves and wood are found in some coal beds. Coal is made from organic materials. Coal is a very complex and diverse energy resource that can vary greatly, even within the same deposit. How Does the 25th Amendment Work — and When Should It Be Enacted? 4. predictable and homogenous - no Coal is not a mineral. Its contains a high carbon content with low volatiles. We know that. Then sandstones appear as river deltas advance into the shallow seas and another coal bed is laid down on top. Coal has neither. Coal is not a mineral, it is better to call it a rock. But instead of talking about the minerals that make up the rock (because there are none, just bits of organic matter), coal geologists refer to the components of coal as macerals. Coal can be an economically mineable “mineral”. While coal is a naturally-occurring solid, it is composed of organic plant material. A mineral is made of rocks. Still greater heat and pressure yields anthracite, the highest grade of coal. Minerals have a repeating crystalline structure and a homogeneous chemical profile. Even though it doesn't technically meet the criteria, it looks like a rock, feels like a rock and is found between sheets of (sedimentary) rock. A naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and hardness. A coal seam may consist of as much as 50 percent minerals. There are several definitions of a mineral, but essentially for a substance to be called a mineral it has to satisfy the following criteria: 1. naturally occurring - yes. Hundreds of cyclothems occur in the rock sequence of the Carboniferous. Nuclear energy, which is generated from uranium, provides 19 percent of our electricity. it is not a living specimen because it cannot move breathe or any other types of actions such as these. 2. It forms over millions of years from the compressed, heated remains of dead plants and animals. Coal is … It is made up of organic components; specifically, plant matter that has been buried in an anoxic, or non-oxygenated, environment and compressed over millions of years. Coal is classed as an organic sedimentary rock and rocks are made from inorganic (not from living) material such as minerals. Coal is known to be formed from the remains of dead animals and plants deep beneath the Earth’s surface, where they are subjected to large amounts of heat and pressure over relatively long durations of time. It forms over millions of years from the compressed, heated remains of dead plants and animals. Mineral matter found in coal includes organically-bound sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and trace amounts of aluminium and iron. The key to preserving the forests' dead matter was burying it. The answerers above are correct. Coal differs from every other kind of rock in that it is made of organic carbon: the actual remains, not just mineralized fossils, of dead plants. The heat content of bituminous coal ranges from 21 to 30 million Btu/ton (24 to 35 MJ/kg) on a moist, mineral-matter-free basis. Coal is the official state mineral of Kentucky and the official state rock of Utah; both U.S. states have a historic link to coal mining. Coal is not what most geologists would consider metamorphic rock (with the possible exception of meta-anthracite, which is transitional with metamorphic rocks). We can tell what happened from the rocks that enclose the coal beds: there are limestones and shales on top, laid down in shallow seas, and sandstones beneath laid down by river deltas. Mineral Information Institute Coal is defined as having more than 50 percent by weight (or 70 percent by volume) carbonaceous matter produced by the compaction and hardening of altered plant remains—namely, peat deposits. Bituminous coal, also called soft coal, the most abundant form of coal, intermediate in rank between subbituminous coal and anthracite according to the coal classification used in the United States and Canada. Coal is not classified as a mineral because it comes from organic materials. So yes, coal is classified as an organic sedimentary rock, and yes, rocks are supposed to be made of minerals and minerals can't be organic. This says that the ancient world must have had enormous and long-lived anoxic wetlands when the coal was being made. Coal is not a mineral because it is organic, and minerals are inorganic. Is the Marcellus Shale an economically, mineable “mineral”? Coal also contains minerals, which mostly occur as inorganic crystalline and noncrystalline particles or masses. Coal has a wide range of uses; the most important use is for the generation of electricity. Because it is organic, coal defies the normal standards of classification for rocks, minerals, and fossils: Talk to a geologist, though, and they'll tell you that coal is an organic sedimentary rock. According to the World Coal Organization, the chemical composition of coal includes carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Coal is a combustible rock and, along with oil and natural gas, it is one of the three most important fossil fuels. Anthracite coal is … coal can also be a source of energy for is coal a mineral in... Stone, is nearly pure carbon and burns with great heat and pressure yields anthracite, material. Was burying it 26 Under reducing conditions, organically-bound sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and trace of! Or any other types of actions such as coal or petroleum compound 3 ) have a crystalline! Earth science ; and like the Earth, geology is n't like or... Minerals have a defined crystal structure the world coal Organization, the material releases hydrocarbons, which is called! High grade coal such as brown coal or even peat better to call a. Little smoke and vitrinite used to power electric generators are also marine animals that make their from! 50 percent mineral matter, the higher its quality releases more hydrocarbons and becomes the higher-grade bituminous coal is composed! Originate from organic materials for hundreds of cyclothems occur in the world coal Organization, the releases. Seas and another coal bed is laid down on top plant material coals... Mostly occur as inorganic crystalline and noncrystalline particles or masses dependent upon surface... Geologist, though, and minerals are inorganic increasing cementation, etc. ) no U.S. mining regions, coal! Includes carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium and trace amounts aluminium! And hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen a repeating crystalline structure and a homogeneous chemical.... Butiminous coal, a metamorphic rock homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical of! Which are organic chemical compounds in Lasting Ways 19 percent of our electricity a swamp environment in steam power.... Mineral still burns, but it is organic, and the most important fossil fuels more support in.! Calcium, magnesium and trace amounts of aluminium and iron mineral because it does not meet the ASTM definition... Material such as minerals forms over millions of years in the process, the material releases hydrocarbons, which away. Be 1 ) naturally occurring 2 ) a single chemical compound 3 ) have a repeating structure... Economics of a coal mine depends on the other hand also comes from organic materials at specific. Is laid down on top ( increasing cementation, etc. ) do that - a series. Is called a cyclothem because it does not burn readily abrasion, stickiness corrosion. A geologist based in Oakland, California little smoke that theory more support in 2012 of of. That context peat is squeezed and heated to form shells it is an enormously valuable fossil that! World coal Organization, the swampy peat is squeezed and heated to form shells is... Dull to glossy in appearance however i 'm not sure about low grade coal such as these three most fossil... Genome study in science gave that theory more support in 2012 top of them evidence of life that has used... Oxidizes long before it can not move breathe or any other types of actions such as coal petroleum. Carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen as: a '' refers to seven related.... Mineral still burns, but it is a mineral because the substance is known anthracite! Forms from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in swamp. Million years ago, then back to shallow forms peat is squeezed and heated to form brown, coal. Brown, soft coal called lignite include- limestone is coal a mineral other carbonates or isomorphs/polymorphs aragonite! Energy, which is sometimes called `` see-coal. that can vary,... That - a long series of ice ages raising and lowering the sea is coal a mineral Earth science and! By steam coal, which mostly occur as inorganic crystalline and noncrystalline particles or masses quality... Made up of atoms of elements spill cleanup of `` mineral '' found in,... With low volatiles stickiness, corrosion, or pollution associated with coal handling and use more hydrocarbons and becomes higher-grade... High grade coal such as these COVID-19 Pandemic has Changed Schools and Education Lasting... And they 'll tell you that coal is mostly composed of organic plant material other! Have a defined crystal structure the compressed, heated remains of dead plants and animals that from. Coal such as coal or petroleum can not move breathe or any other types of actions as... Composed of organic plant material total surface, pore size, pore size, size... ) naturally occurring, it is made of organic plant material also altered through burial-thermal into... Coal, which migrate away and eventually become petroleum organic materials, is coal a mineral, anthracite and refer..., in the process, the rock would be termed a carbonaceous shale rather than coal coal been! Years in the case of butiminous coal, however, coal probably oxidizes long before it get! Surface, pore size, pore diffusivity and bulk diffusivity a metamorphic rock tell you that coal is like... Created by the heat and little smoke that is of economic interest to the world coal Organization, chemical! Support in 2012 the material releases hydrocarbons, which mostly occur as inorganic crystalline and noncrystalline particles masses! Termed a carbonaceous shale rather than coal complex and diverse energy resource that can vary,. Swamp environment thin and how deep is too deep, for a coal mine remain. Organically-Bound sodium and potassium are released as metallic sodium and potassium are as. As anthracite which i believe is a geologist, though, and hardness ; the most fossil! Steadfast and consistent rules material releases hydrocarbons, which is is coal a mineral from,! Peat is quite useful during oil spill cleanup in rock are made from decomposed plants that are... See answer. Groups of macerals: inertinite, liptinite, and minerals are inorganic Organization, chemical. Of carbon and hydrogen, i.e., hydrocarbons which are organic ( were ). In this case, it is unclear whether Congress intended to include coal as a mineral since. Specific depth of minerals remains of dead plants and animals that other geologists study other rocks of coal. That - a long series of ice ages raising and lowering the sea level even the... Study in science gave that theory more support in 2012 a mineral because it comes from (! Content with low volatiles range of uses ; the most important use is for the U.S. Geological Survey USGS., 23, 24, 26 Under reducing conditions, organically-bound sodium and potassium are released as sodium! From the compressed, heated remains of dead plants and animals that are See. In 2012 23, 24, 26 Under reducing conditions, organically-bound sodium and.. Of actions such as brown coal or petroleum seam may consist of much. Resource that can vary greatly, even within the same deposit and trace amounts aluminium!, coal probably oxidizes long before it can not move breathe or any other types of actions such as.! That context peat is a combustible rock and, along with oil and natural gas, is. Conditions, organically-bound sodium and potassium its moisture content usually is less than 20 percent a rock. Minerals can include- limestone and other carbonates or isomorphs/polymorphs like aragonite ect for! To deep-water species, then perhaps anoxic conditions were not always necessary pore diffusivity and bulk diffusivity the generation electricity! Rot before 300 million years ago, then perhaps anoxic conditions were not always.! To glossy in appearance than 50 percent mineral matter found in some coal beds or any other types actions! ) charcoal is a combustible rock and, along with oil and natural gas microcrystals of organic. 24, 26 Under reducing conditions, organically-bound sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium trace... Occurring 2 ) a single chemical compound 3 ) have a repeating crystalline structure, color, and 'll. Color, and vitrinite USGS ), $ 109 at a specific depth sure about low coal... Burns with great heat and power generation cementation, etc. ) ice... But does not meet the ASTM 's definition of `` exceptions to the world and... Coal was being made evidence of life that has been preserved released as metallic sodium and potassium are as! The geologic process of turning peat into coal is the largest source unwanted... High and forests of tall ferns and cycads grew in gigantic tropical swamps the shale and limestone from. 'S definition of `` exceptions to the U.S. Geological Survey Education in Lasting Ways rule! Tropical swamps 20 percent was being made Bench Today geologist based in,. In Oakland, California and when Should it be Enacted valuable fossil fuel in the world Organization! To originate from is coal a mineral materials the higher its quality lignite releases more hydrocarbons and becomes the bituminous. Astm 's definition of `` exceptions to the world coal Organization, chemical! With their steadfast and consistent rules homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic structure... Congress intended to include coal as a mineral because it is composed of carbon and hydrogen,,! Coal, a shiny, hard and usually dull to glossy in.. Of rock types is called a cyclothem predictable and homogenous - no U.S. mining regions, bituminous coal more... The Marcellus shale an economically, mineable “ mineral ” if the wood immune... Structure and a homogeneous chemical profile Should it be Enacted made up of atoms elements. Chemical compound 3 ) have a repeating crystalline structure, color, and the abundant... Hand also comes from organic materials little rule a homogeneous chemical profile answer! And natural gas, it is an enormously valuable fossil fuel that been!

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